Sunday, December 17, 2017

Netiquette IQ Blog Of 12/17/17 - Logic Basics - Amust For Al!


Puerto Rico Needs Your Help! Here's How



United for Puerto Rico (spearheaded by the First Lady of Puerto Rico)
Former U.S. presidents have expanded their One America Appeal to include recovery efforts in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands
Save the Children, which focuses specifically on the needs of families and their children.
Global Giving has a $2 million goal for victims of Hurricane Maria




Buy the books at

 www.amazon.com/author/paulbabicki
====================================================








One of my favorite topics is Logic, which I took as a college freshman. It is an integral part of Netiquette and truthful scommunication of any sort. The basic principles are, I believe, essential to all , , ,especially in the day of political polarization!



Brief Definitions of Informal Fallacies With Links to Examples and Discussions 

Straw man is a fallacy in which an opponent's argument is overstated or misrepresented in order to be more easily attacked or refuted.
by Richard Nordquist from thoughtco.com
 
Updated August 14, 2017
For those who need a little refresher, here are some of the most common informal logical fallacies.

It may have happened to you while reading comments on a blog, watching a political commercial, or listening to a talking head on a chat show. A mental alarm goes off signaling that what you're reading, watching, or listening to is utter claptrap and twaddle.
For me, the BS alert sounded when I ran across these random observations in the "Vox Populi" column of the local newspaper:
  • Learning how to swim does not guarantee you won't drown. I'm 55 years old, have never learned to swim and I haven't drowned.
  • We need to pass a law that stupid people are not allowed to own pets.
  • I'm aggravated with spaghetti sauce with vegetables. I love vegetables, but I don't want them in my spaghetti sauce. Where's our freedom going?
  • Regarding the person who had to "tote" stuff at Wal-Mart; tote? Carry. What is wrong with people? You don't "tote" stuff, you carry it.
  • The English language is the only language that should be spoken in the open and none other. This is the United States of America.
  • Those of us who are true taxpaying, working Americans need to stand up and demand that people should have certain education, I.Q. and income levels to be able to vote for president or any major political office.
  • Anyone who thinks that interest in books is waning hasn't paid much attention. I love the show Face the Nation and they recently had eight authors on!
  • Isn't it amazing that Savannah is ranked as 10 on America's most snobbish city [list] and that 10 percent of Savannah's population are Yankees?
  • Obama shouldn't go to Martha's Vineyard. Every time he does, something major happens.
At these head-slapping moments, it may help to recall some of those informal logical fallacies that we once studied in school.
At least then we can put a name to the nonsense.
In case you need a little refresher, here are 12 common fallacies. For examples and detailed discussions, click on the highlighted terms.
  1. Ad Hominem
    A personal attack: that is, an argument based on the perceived failings of an adversary rather than on the merits of the case.
  2. Ad Misericordiam
    An argument that involves an irrelevant or highly exaggerated appeal to pity or sympathy.
  3. Bandwagon
    An argument based on the assumption that the opinion of the majority is always valid: everyone believes it, so you should too.
  4. Begging the Question
    A fallacy in which the premise of an argument presupposes the truth of its conclusion; in other words, the argument takes for granted what it's supposed to prove. Also known as a
    circular argument.
  5. Dicto Simpliciter
    An argument in which a general rule is treated as universally true regardless of the circumstances: a sweeping generalization.
  6. False Dilemma
    A fallacy of oversimplification: an argument in which only two alternatives are provided when in fact additional options are available. Sometimes called the either-or fallacy.
  7. Name Calling
    A fallacy that relies on emotionally loaded terms to influence an audience.
  8. Non Sequitur
    An argument in which a conclusion doesn't follow logically from what preceded it.
  1. Post Hoc
    A fallacy in which one event is said to be the cause of a later event simply because it occurred earlier.
  2. Red Herring
    An observation that draws attention away from the central issue in an argument or discussion.
  3. Stacking the Deck
    A fallacy in which any evidence that supports an opposing argument is simply rejected, omitted, or ignored.
  4. Straw Man
    A fallacy in which an opponent's argument is overstated or misrepresented in order to be more easily attacked or refuted.
===========================
   Good Netiquette And A Green Internet To All!  =====================================================================
Tabula Rosa Systems - Tabula Rosa Systems (TRS) is dedicated to providing Best of Breed Technology and Best of Class Professional Services to our Clients. We have a portfolio of products which we have selected for their capabilities, viability and value. TRS provides product, design, implementation and support services on all products that we represent. Additionally, TRS provides expertise in Network Analysis, eBusiness Application Profiling, ePolicy and eBusiness Troubleshooting. We can be contacted at:
sales@tabularosa.net  or 609 818 1802.
 ===============================================================
In addition to this blog, Netiquette IQ has a website with great assets which are being added to on a regular basis. I have authored the premiere book on Netiquette, “Netiquette IQ - A Comprehensive Guide to Improve, Enhance and Add Power to Your Email". My new book, “You’re Hired! Super Charge Your Email Skills in 60 Minutes. . . And Get That Job!” has just been published and will be followed by a trilogy of books on Netiquette for young people. You can view my profile, reviews of the book and content excerpts at:


Anyone who would like to review the book and have it posted on my blog or website, please contact me paul@netiquetteiq.com.

In addition to this blog, I maintain a radio show on BlogtalkRadio  and an online newsletter via paper.li.I have established Netiquette discussion groups with Linkedin and  Yahoo.  I am also a member of the International Business Etiquette and Protocol Group and Minding Manners among others. I regularly consult for the Gerson Lehrman Group, a worldwide network of subject matter experts and I have been contributing to the blogs Everything Email and emailmonday . My work has appeared in numerous publications and I have presented to groups such as The Breakfast Club of NJ and  PSG of Mercer County, NJ.

Saturday, December 16, 2017

Netiquette IQ Blog Of 12/16/17 - Denotation Or Connotation?


Puerto Rico Needs Your Help! Here's How



United for Puerto Rico (spearheaded by the First Lady of Puerto Rico)
Former U.S. presidents have expanded their One America Appeal to include recovery efforts in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands
Save the Children, which focuses specifically on the needs of families and their children.
Global Giving has a $2 million goal for victims of Hurricane Maria




Buy the books at

 www.amazon.com/author/paulbabicki
====================================================








Understanding the difference between denotation and connotation is important to understanding definitions and how concepts are used. Unfortunately, that is complicated by the fact that these terms can be used in two different ways: grammatical and logical. Even worse, both uses are worth keeping in mind, and both uses are relevant to the project of logical, critical thinking.

Meaning: Denotation and Connotation

In grammar, a word’s denotation is whatever the word directly refers to, roughly equivalent to its lexical definition.Thus, the word “atheist” denotes a person who disbelieves in or denies the existence of gods. A word’s connotation refers to any subtle nuances that might or might not be intended by its use. For example, one possible connotation for the word “atheist” might be someone who is immoral and wicked, depending upon who is doing the speaking or listening.
Separating grammatical denotation from connotation is important because while one might assume that a word’s denotation is fully intended, whether a word’s connotations are intended is much more difficult to determine. Connotations are often emotional in nature, and thus if they are intended, it may be for the purpose of swaying a person’s emotional reactions rather than the logical evaluation of an argument.
If there are misunderstandings about how a person is using a word in a particular debate, a primary source of that misunderstanding might lie in the word’s connotations: people might be seeing something not intended, or the speaker may be intending something people don’t see.
In constructing your arguments, it’s a good idea not merely to look at what your words denote, but also what they connote.
In logic, the uses of denotation and connotation are very different. The denotation, or extension, of a term, is the list of a class of objects referred to by the word (think of it as “how far does this word extend?”).
===========================
   Good Netiquette And A Green Internet To All!  =====================================================================
Tabula Rosa Systems - Tabula Rosa Systems (TRS) is dedicated to providing Best of Breed Technology and Best of Class Professional Services to our Clients. We have a portfolio of products which we have selected for their capabilities, viability and value. TRS provides product, design, implementation and support services on all products that we represent. Additionally, TRS provides expertise in Network Analysis, eBusiness Application Profiling, ePolicy and eBusiness Troubleshooting. We can be contacted at:
sales@tabularosa.net  or 609 818 1802.
 ===============================================================
In addition to this blog, Netiquette IQ has a website with great assets which are being added to on a regular basis. I have authored the premiere book on Netiquette, “Netiquette IQ - A Comprehensive Guide to Improve, Enhance and Add Power to Your Email". My new book, “You’re Hired! Super Charge Your Email Skills in 60 Minutes. . . And Get That Job!” has just been published and will be followed by a trilogy of books on Netiquette for young people. You can view my profile, reviews of the book and content excerpts at:


Anyone who would like to review the book and have it posted on my blog or website, please contact me paul@netiquetteiq.com.

In addition to this blog, I maintain a radio show on BlogtalkRadio  and an online newsletter via paper.li.I have established Netiquette discussion groups with Linkedin and  Yahoo.  I am also a member of the International Business Etiquette and Protocol Group and Minding Manners among others. I regularly consult for the Gerson Lehrman Group, a worldwide network of subject matter experts and I have been contributing to the blogs Everything Email and emailmonday . My work has appeared in numerous publications and I have presented to groups such as The Breakfast Club of NJ and  PSG of Mercer County, NJ.

Thus the word “planet” denotes specific objects such as Venus, Earth, Jupiter, and Neptune. Whether it also denotes an object like “Pluto” is a matter of some debate among astronomers for reasons I will explain shortly.
The connotation, or intension, of a word, is the list of attributes shared by all members of the class named by the word (think of it as “by using this word, what do I intend?”). Thus the word “planet” connotes certain characteristics which astronomers have decided differentiate certain objects from other objects like comets, stars, and asteroids. The debate over whether the word “planet” denotes “Pluto” is because astronomers disagree on what sorts of attributes are connoted by the word “planet,” and hence whether “Pluto” has the right attributes to qualify as a planet.

Connotation vs. Denotation: Which Comes First?

The debate over the status of Pluto indicates that whereas the extension of a word is determined by its intension, the reverse is not also true. Put more simply, the list of objects covered by a word is determined by the list of characteristics that word is thought to describe; on the other hand, the list of characteristics described by a word is not determined by the list of things covered by that word.
The objects covered by the word “planet” are determined by what characteristics the word “planet” is supposed to describe, but not the other way around.
At least, that’s what some philosophers argue. Others disagree and argue the contrary: that a word is used first to describe a list of objects thought to be similar in some important ways and then, once this denotation of the word is established, the connotation is developed by teasing out a set of reasonable characteristics from the list of objects. Thus, the connotation is determined by the denotation.
Who is right? Perhaps they both are. An example of how difficult it is to determine this might be the word “tree.” Did people first create a list of tree-like qualities and then later decide which objects go on the list of “trees,” or did people first start calling certain objects “trees” and only later decide what “tree-like” qualities justified inclusion in the list of trees?
In logic, science, and philosophy — basically, in any field where very careful thought is required — intension should determine extension. In casual usage, however, it may well be that as a practical matter extension can determine intension.
Meanings Change
The meaning of words can change over time because people will simply use them in different ways, but any change in meaning might represent an extensional change (in what the word denotes), an intensional change (in what the word connotes), or both. For example, the word “marriage” doesn’t currently denote (for most people) any unions between two members of the same sex. If we started to denote such unions by “marriage,” would that require a change in connotation (what characteristics the word intends) or not?
This is, in fact, a key element in the debate over gay marriage. When people disagree over whether gays should be allowed to marry, they disagree in part over the proper intension of the term “marriage.” Unless they come to some agreement over the term’s intension, they will never see eye-to-eye over its extension.
Naturally, if someone is asked for a definition of a word, they can provide vastly different answers based on whether an extensional or intentional definition is offered. An extensional definition is basically a list of the entities covered by the term — for example listing the planets when asked what a planet is or listing “poem, play, novel, or short story” as a definition of a “fictional work.” Such a definition has advantages because it necessarily contains hard examples of what is being discussed.
An intensional definition, however, lists the attributes or characteristics of the concept — for example, listing the qualities that an object must have to qualify as a planet instead of an asteroid. For obvious reasons, this is often easier than an extensional definition because there is no need to list a long series of examples — a list of attributes is always shorter and quicker.




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 The following is an excerpt from my book, detailed below. For more information on this topic and the best book on email, it can be purchased by following the links below to Amazon.

Ecards
Email has rapidly fostered a growing trend to replace special-occasion communications with electronic ones. Ecards are now available for all holidays, personal milestones, social events, and public announcements. Just as with any personal communication, a significant part of content is diluted or removed when email is involved. As described in other chapters, body language, tone, and parts of interpersonal contact are eliminated or experienced differently.
Proper Netiquette for ecards should be practiced and maintained with the same standards of vigilance and discipline to ensure that the desired result of the communication is maximized. Whereby much direct contact, mail, or letters can be replaced by email to some extent, there is a further diminishing value when ecards or their variants are used. Forms of ecards are available as readily as paper cards in the display racks of stationary stores. These can, for the most part, be serious, humorous, or witty, as the following list shows:
Business
Promotion
Retirement by employer
Firing
Graduation
All levels
Announcements  
New Employee
Tributes
Promotions
Engagements
Obituaries
Notifications
Major Losses
Relatives
Anniversary
Marriage
Work
Religious
Baptism
All Denominations
Holidays
Valentine
Halloween
St Patricks Day
All Nationalities
Parties
Invitations
Cyber Parties
Mothers /Fathers Day
Birthdays
Get Well
Relationship



============================
   Good Netiquette And A Green Internet To All!  =====================================================================
Tabula Rosa Systems - Tabula Rosa Systems (TRS) is dedicated to providing Best of Breed Technology and Best of Class Professional Services to our Clients. We have a portfolio of products which we have selected for their capabilities, viability and value. TRS provides product, design, implementation and support services on all products that we represent. Additionally, TRS provides expertise in Network Analysis, eBusiness Application Profiling, ePolicy and eBusiness Troubleshooting. We can be contacted at:
sales@tabularosa.net  or 609 818 1802.
 ===============================================================
In addition to this blog, Netiquette IQ has a website with great assets which are being added to on a regular basis. I have authored the premiere book on Netiquette, “Netiquette IQ - A Comprehensive Guide to Improve, Enhance and Add Power to Your Email". My new book, “You’re Hired! Super Charge Your Email Skills in 60 Minutes. . . And Get That Job!” has just been published and will be followed by a trilogy of books on Netiquette for young people. You can view my profile, reviews of the book and content excerpts at:

 www.amazon.com/author/paulbabicki

Anyone who would like to review the book and have it posted on my blog or website, please contact me paul@netiquetteiq.com.

In addition to this blog, I maintain a radio show on BlogtalkRadio  and an online newsletter via paper.li.I have established Netiquette discussion groups with Linkedin and  Yahoo I am also a member of the International Business Etiquette and Protocol Group and Minding Manners among others. I regularly consult for the Gerson Lehrman Group, a worldwide network of subject matter experts and I have been contributing to the blogs Everything Email and emailmonday . My work has appeared in numerous publications and I have presented to groups such as The Breakfast Club of NJ and  PSG of Mercer County, NJ.


Additionally, I am the president of Tabula Rosa Systems, a “best of breed” reseller of products for communications, email, network management software, security products and professional services.  Also, I am the president of Netiquette IQ. We are currently developing an email IQ rating system, Netiquette IQ, which promotes the fundamentals outlined in my book.